The beam refers to the maximum width of a boat’s hull. It is measured at the widest point of the boat from the port side to the starboard side. In other words, if you were looking down on a boat from above, the beam would be the straight line distance spanning the boat at its widest point.
Understanding a boat’s beam is critical because it has major implications for the boat’s stability, speed, maneuverability, and safety. A wider beam provides more initial stability and capacity for passengers and gear, while a narrower beam allows for greater speed. The ideal beam width depends on the boat’s intended use and type.
How is a Boat’s Beam Measured?
Measuring a boat’s beam is straightforward – it just requires a tape measure. To get an accurate beam measurement, measure the horizontal distance between the port and starboard sides at the boat’s widest point. This widest point is usually somewhere midship.
Make sure the boat is level when measuring the beam. Measuring while the boat is not horizontal can result in an incorrect beam length. Also, take the measurement from the outside edge of the boat’s hull or gunwale to get the maximum beam width.
Record the beam measurement in feet and inches. The beam is commonly referenced when describing a boat’s specifications, so it’s an important number to know.
Beam vs. Waterline Beam: What’s the Difference?
In addition to overall beam, you may also hear the term “waterline beam.” This refers specifically to the width of the boat at its waterline.
The waterline is where the hull meets the surface of the water when loaded. Since the waterline shifts depending on weight distribution, the waterline beam is measured with the boat floating level and any equipment/passengers onboard.
The waterline beam will always be equal to or less than the maximum beam. On boats with a lot of flare in the bow or stern, there can be a substantial difference between the maximum beam and the waterline beam.
Do Wide Beam Boats Perform Better?
When it comes to beam, wider isn’t necessarily better – or worse. The optimal beam width depends on the intended purpose of the boat. Here’s how beam impacts performance:
- Wide Beam Benefits: A wider beam provides more initial stability and buoyancy. Wide-beamed boats handle waves and rough conditions well. The added beam also increases passenger and gear capacity.
- Wide Beam Drawbacks: The trade-off is speed. A wider beam leads to more drag and reduced speed potential. Wide boats are also less nimble and harder to maneuver in tight spaces.
- Narrow Beam Benefits: Narrower beamed boats slice through the water more easily, allowing them to reach faster speeds. They tend to be nimbler and easier to handle.
- Narrow Beam Drawbacks: Less initial stability, capacity, and comfort in waves. A narrow beam requires ballast or multiple hulls to prevent capsizing.
As you can see, the ideal beam depends on factors like the boat’s purpose, operating conditions, and capacity needs. Wider beams favor stability, while narrower beams provide speed.
How Does Beam Impact Boat Performance and Handling?
Beyond just speed and stability, a boat’s beam also affects other aspects of performance and handling:
- Maneuverability – Narrow beam boats are more responsive to helm and turn tighter. Wide beams resist turning and are harder to maneuver.
- Speed – As mentioned, a narrower waterline beam allows for less drag and greater speed potential. But displacement and length also impact speed.
- Stability – Wider beam means more initial stability up to a certain point. But stability is also influenced by hull shape, ballast, and center of gravity.
- Seakeeping – For coastal and offshore boats, a wider beam handles waves better by reducing roll. A narrower beam causes more pronounced rolling in waves.
- Bridge/Canal Clearance – Boats with a wider beam may not fit through narrow locks, under bridges, or in canals. Beam width limits where some boats can navigate.
- Capacity – A wider beam allows for more passenger seating and provides more onboard space for cruising and storage.
As you start to boat shop, carefully consider how the beam measurement affects the performance you want. Test driving different beam widths is recommended so you can get a feel for how the boat handles.
Conclusion: Why Understanding Beam Matters
While less flashy than length or horsepower, a boat’s beam is one of its most important dimensions. The beam has a direct impact on a boat’s stability, speed, handling, passenger capacity, and safety. Wider beams provide stability and space, while narrower beams deliver speed and maneuverability.
I hope this guide provided you with a solid understanding of exactly what a boat’s beam is and how beam measurements are defined. Knowing the beam and how it impacts performance will help you select the optimal boat for your needs. Safe and happy boating!